Fruit of the Spirit

Josiah, the Torah Scroll, and the Captivity

Events in Egypt, Israel/Judah, and Mesopotamia from the 3000th Year of the World to the 3200th Year of the World

One of a series of timeline studies:

In this time the Northern Kingdom (Israel) went into captivity in Assyria and the Southern Kingdom of Judah assumed administration of all the land under foreign empires; sometimes Egypt, sometimes Assyria. By the end of the period, the Egyptian Empire had shrunk to only the core teritories of Lower and Upper Egypt, The Great Assyrian Empire was gone, the land of Israel was depopulated, and Judah was captive in Babylon.

The Empire of Egypt begins the period with an Egyptian Pharaoh at Sais and a Libian Pharaoh at Tanis fighting over Lower Egypt. The Nubian (also called Ethiopian or Cushite) Pharaoh Piankhy at Thebes in Upper Egypt had invaded as far as Memphis.

In Mesopotamia, Assyria was fading from it's position as the only Super-power with the rise of Babylonian, Persian, and Median power.

Israel and Judah, forgotten on the boundaries of empires concerned with wars in their homelands, rebuild their territories and experience the moral decay attendant on easy wealth.

The Record opens with Amos sent to Beth El with a call to repentance, then Hosea, Isaiah and Micah add their voices...

Entries are color-coded and labeled (CSS2 is required for proper display, IE7 will not work right but both Firefox and Safari do). Events are described with clips from the second Book of the Kings, JPS translation of the Holy Scriptures, where available. For puroses of clarity, 'he' or 'him' is sometimes replaced with a proper name (eg. the entry for 3081 in 2 Kings 19:37 has 'as he was' and we show 'as Sennacherib was').

Birth-dates of kings are interpolated, where the scripture text provides a date and age at ascendency, a birth year is calculated and any comments identifying his mother are included

Prophets are included where their dates are known (or estimated from statements such as "in the days of Uzziah"), refer to their respective books on Mechon Mamre or for further insight.

In this table dates are listed both in the Hebrew Year of the World (AM) and the western bce (Years Before Common Era, formerly BC). AM dates count up from leaving Eden, while the bce dates count down toward the life of Jesus.

Dates included are honest best estimates based on compiling available research into a consistent chronology.

this line was typed: Yom Gimmel, 12th Tevet, Year of the World 5767, == Tuesday, January 2, AD 2007 (synch your calendars)
c. 3000c. 761 The words of Amos, who was among the herdmen of Tekoa, which he saw concerning Israel in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash king of Israel.
c. 3002c. 759 The great earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah, remembered in Zechariah 14:5 (written at least 240 years later).
c. 3005c. 756 Amos' words are written to a scroll for his followers in Judah. (The first Prophet to leave us a written copy of his message)
c. 3009c. 752 Traditional date for the founding of Rome by Romulus.
c. 3010c. 751 The word of the LORD that came unto Hosea the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel.
3016745 Tiglath-Pileser III becomes ruler of Assyria, institutes the system of mass deportations to break ancient alliances and lessen the outbreaks of rebelion.
3018743 And Jeroboam slept with his fathers, even with the kings of Israel; and Zechariah his son reigned in Samaria six months. 15:8
3018743 And Shallum the son of Jabesh conspired against him, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, the space of a month in Samaria. 15:9
3018743 And Menahem the son of Gadi went up from Tirzah, and came to Samaria, and smote Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria, and slew him, and reigned in his stead. 15:19
3020 * Decade
3020741 Hezekiah ben Ahaz born, his mother's name was Abi the daughter of Zechariah. 18:2
3021740 The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw the Lord sitting upon a throne high and lifted up, and His train filled the temple.
3021740 And Azariah (Uzziah) slept with his fathers; and they buried him with his fathers in the city of David; and Jotham his son reigned in his stead. 15:7
????* The word of the LORD that came to Micah the Morashtite in the days of Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah, which he saw concerning Samaria and Jerusalem.
3023738 Pekahiah the son of Menahem began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned two years. 15:23
3024737 Pekah the son of Remaliah began to reign over Israel in Samaria, and reigned twenty years. 15:27
3025736 And Jotham slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David his father; and Ahaz his son reigned in his stead. 15:38
3027734 Nabu-Nadin-Zer becomes ruler in Babylon
3028733 Then Rezin king of Aram and Pekah son of Remaliah king of Israel came up to Jerusalem to war; and they besieged Ahaz, but could not overcome him. So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, saying: 'I am thy servant and thy son; come up, and save me out of the hand of the king of Aram, and out of the hand of the king of Israel, who rise up against me.' And the king of Assyria hearkened unto him; and the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin. 16:5
3029732 Ukin-Zer becomes ruler in Babylon
3029732 Tiglath-Pileser III deports The tribe of Reuben, led by Beerah son of Baal son of Reaiah son of Micah son of Shimei son of Gog son of Shemaiah son of Joel, as recorded in I Chronicles 5:4-6.
3029732 And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead. 15:30
3030 * Decade
3031730 Osorkon IV becomes Libian Pharaoh at Tanis
3032729 Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria becomes ruler in Babylon, assumes the name "Pul"
3035726 Shalmaneser V becomes king of Assyria and Babylon
3036725 Against him came up Shalmaneser king of Assyria; and Hoshea became his servant, and brought him presents. And the king of Assyria found conspiracy in Hoshea; for he had sent messengers to So king of Egypt (Osorkon of Tanis), and offered no present to the king of Assyria, as he had done year by year; therefore the king of Assyria shut him up, and bound him in prison. 17:3
3037724 Then the king of Assyria came up throughout all the land, and went up to Samaria, and besieged it three years. 17:5
3040 * Decade
3040721 Sargon II becomes king of Assyria
3040721 the king of Assyria took Samaria, and carried Israel away unto Assyria, and placed them in Halah, and in Habor, on the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes. "Israel" now again refers to all the people of the twelve tribes. 17:6
3040721 Merodach-Baladan becomes ruler in Babylon
3041720 Bakenrenef becomes Egyptian Pharaoh at Sais
3045716 Shabaka becomes Nubian Pharaoh at Thebes on the death of his brother Piankhy.
3045716 And Ahaz slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David; and Hezekiah his son reigned in his stead. 16:20
3046715 end of the Egyptian dynasty at Sais with the conquest by Shabaka's Nubian forces.
3046715 end of the Libian dynasty at Tanis with the conquest by Shabaka's Nubian forces.
3046715 Neferkare becomes 23rd dynasty Libian Pharaoh at Leontopolis as Libians regroup.
3047714 Nimlot becomes Libian Pharaoh at Leontopolis
3049712 Fall of Leontopolis to Shabaka's Nubian forces. Shabaka is now sole Pharaoh of Upper and Lower Egypt.
3050 * Decade
3051710 Sargon II of Assyria conquers and becomes ruler in Babylon
3056705 Babylon rebels against Assyrian occupation.
3057704 Sennacherib becomes king of Assyria
3059702 Shebitku (Horenheb) maries Mutnodjmet, becomes Sennacherib's son-in-law.
3059702 Sennacherib king of Assyria came up against all the fortified cities of Judah, and took them. And Hezekiah king of Judah sent to the king of Assyria to Lachish, saying: 'I have offended; return from me; that which thou puttest on me will I bear.' And the king of Assyria appointed unto Hezekiah king of Judah three hundred talents of silver and thirty talents of gold. 18:13
3059702 Sennacherib helps Shebitku become Pharaoh at Thebes
3059702 Bel-Ibni becomes ruler in Babylon
3060 * Decade
3062699 Ashur-Nadin-Shum becomes ruler in Babylon
3062699 Manasseh ben Hezekiah born, his mother's name was Hephzibah. 21:1
3067694 Nergal-Ushezib becomes ruler in Babylon
3068693 Mushezib-Marduk becomes ruler in Babylon
3070 * Decade
3070691 And the king of Assyria sent Tartan and Rab-saris and Rab-shakeh from Lachish to king Hezekiah with a great army unto Jerusalem. And they went up and came to Jerusalem. And when they were come up, they came and stood by the conduit of the upper pool, which is in the highway of the fullers' field. 18:17
3071690 Taharqa, son of Piakhy, succeeds his cousin Shebitku as Pharaoh at Thebes
3071690 So Rab-shakeh returned, and found the king of Assyria warring against Libnah; for he had heard that he was departed from Lachish. And when he heard say of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia (Taharqa, the Nubian Pharaoh of all Egypt): 'Behold, he is come out to fight against thee'; he sent messengers again unto Hezekiah, saying: 'Thus shall ye speak to Hezekiah king of Judah, saying: Let not thy God in whom thou trustest beguile thee, saying: Jerusalem shall not be given into the hand of the king of Assyria. 19:8
????* Approximate end of Isaiah's ministry, he was mentioned in the events of 3071 but not later. From the death of Uzziah in 3021 to Sennacherib's seige of 3071 would be 50 years as prophet.
3072689 Esarhaddon becomes ruler in Babylon as Vice-Regent of Assyria
3074687 And Hezekiah slept with his fathers; and Manasseh his son reigned in his stead. 20:21
3080 * Decade
3081680 And it came to pass, as Sennacherib was worshipping in the house of Nisroch his god, that Adrammelech and Sarezer his sons smote him with the sword; and they escaped into the land of Ararat. And Esarhaddon his son reigned in his stead. 19:37
3090 * Decade
3090671 Assyrian forces invade Lower Egypt, pushing Nubian forces out of Memphis.
3093668 Ashurbanipal becomes king of Assyria
3093668 Shamash-Shum-Ukin becomes ruler in Babylon
3097664 Tanutamun becomes Nubian Pharaoh at Thebes
3097664 Psamtik I becomes Egyptian (puppet of Assyria) Pharaoh at Sais
3097664 Amon ben Manasseh born, his mother's name was Meshullemeth the daughter of Haruz of Jotbah. 21:19
3098663 Assyrians under Ashurbanipal sack Thebes
3100 * Decade and Century
3105656 Nubians move administration to Meroe in upper Nubia. With no further Nubian power in Upper Egypt, the puppet in Sais is Pharaoh of all Egypt.
3110 * Decade
3113648 Civil War in Babylon
3113648 Josiah ben Amon born, his mother's name was Jedidah the daughter of Adaiah of Bozkath. 22:1
3114647 Kandalanu becomes ruler in Babylon
3119642 And Manasseh slept with his fathers, and was buried in the garden of his own house, in the garden of Uzza; and Amon his son reigned in his stead. 21:18
3120 * Decade
3121640 And the servants of Amon conspired against him, and put the king to death in his own house. But the people of the land slew all them that had conspired against king Amon; and the people of the land made Josiah his son king in his stead. 21:23
3127634 Jehoiakim ben Josiah born in Judah, and his mother's name was Zebudah the daughter of Pedaiah of Rumah. 23:36
3129632 Jehoahaz ben Josiah born in Judah, and his mother's name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 23:31
3130 * Decade
3134627 The words of Jeremiah the son of Hilkiah, of the priests that were in Anathoth in the land of Benjamin, to whom the word of the LORD came in the days of Josiah the son of Amon, king of Judah, in the thirteenth year of his reign.
3136625 Ashurbanipal dies, his sons Sin-Sahr-Ishkun and Ashur-Etillu-Ili begin civil war for succession. Assyrian forces leave Egypt and the puppet Pharaoh assumes real rule.
3136625 Nabopolassar becomes ruler in Babylon
3138623 Ezekiel born in Judah
3139622 Sin-Sahr-Ishkun becomes king of Assyria, ending civil war.
3140 * Decade
3140621 And Hilkiah the high priest said unto Shaphan the scribe: 'I have found the book of the Law in the house of the LORD.' And Hilkiah delivered the book to Shaphan, and he read it. And Shaphan the scribe told the king, saying: 'Hilkiah the priest hath delivered me a book.' And Shaphan read it before the king. And the king sent, and they gathered unto him all the elders of Judah and of Jerusalem. And the king went up to the house of the LORD, and all the men of Judah and all the inhabitants of Jerusalem with him, and the priests, and the prophets, and all the people, both small and great; and he read in their ears all the words of the book of the covenant which was found in the house of the LORD. And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to offer in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that offered unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the constellations, and to all the host of heaven. And he broke down the houses of the sodomites, that were in the house of the LORD, where the women wove coverings for the Asherah. Moreover the altar that was at Beth-el, and the high place which Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who made Israel to sin, had made, even that altar and the high place he broke down; and he burned the high place and stamped it small to powder, and burned the Asherah. And all the houses also of the high places that were in the cities of Samaria, which the kings of Israel had made to provoke [the LORD], Josiah took away, and did to them according to all the acts that he had done in Beth-el. 22:8
3142619 Mattaniah ben Josiah born in Judah, and his mother's name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 24:18
3145616 Jehoiachin ben Jehoiakim (Josiah's grandson) born in Judah, and his mother's name was Nehushta the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. 24:9
3147614 Ashur captured by Mede/Babylonian alliance
3149612 Nineveh captured by Mede/Babylonian alliance, Sin-Sahr-Ishkun dies in burning palace.
3147612 Ashur-Uballit II becomes king of Assyria on the death of his brother Sin-Sahr-Ishkun.
3149612 Ashur-Uballit II leads Assyrian army retreat to Harran
3150 * Decade
3151610 Nekau (Necho or Niku) becomes Pharaoh at Sais
3152609 In his days Pharaoh-Nekau king of Egypt went up to meet the king of Assyria at the river Euphrates; and king Josiah went against him; and Nekau slew him at Megiddo (har-Megiddo or Armageddon battle-plain), when he had seen him. 23:29
3152609 And his servants carried Josiah in a chariot dead from Megiddo, and brought him to Jerusalem, and buried him in his own sepulchre. And the people of the land took Jehoahaz the son of Josiah, and anointed him, and made him king in his father's stead. 23:30
3152609 And Pharaoh-Nekau put Jehoahaz in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and put the land to a fine of a hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold. And Pharaoh-Nekau made Eliakim the son of Josiah king in the room of Josiah his father, and changed his name to Jehoiakim; but he took Jehoahaz away; and he came to Egypt, and died there. 23:33
3152609 Ashur-Uballit II, last king of Assyria, dies.
3153608 Mede/Babylonian forces defeat Assyrian forces at Carchemish.. End of Assyria.
3153608 Mede/Babylonian forces defeat late arriving Egytptian forces at Carchemish. They cried there: 'Pharaoh king of Egypt is but a noise; he hath let the appointed time pass by.'
3156605 Nebuchadnezzar II becomes king of Babylon, Begins his first campaign of subjugation.
3156605 A group of upper class youths are sent from Judea to Babylon as a tribute to Nebuchadnezzar ("Daniel" is said to be one of these youths)
3160 * Decade
3162599 So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers; and Jehoiachin his son reigned in his stead. 24:6
3162599 At that time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up to Jerusalem, and the city was besieged. And Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came unto the city, while his servants were besieging it. And Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he, and his mother, and his servants, and his princes, and his officers; and the king of Babylon took him in the eighth year of his reign. 24:10
3163598 And the king of Babylon made Mattaniah his father's brother king in his stead, and changed his name to Zedekiah. 24:17
3166595 Psamtik II becomes Pharaoh at Sais
3168593 the word of the LORD came expressly unto Ezekiel the priest, the son of Buzi, in the land of the Chaldeans by the river Chebar; and the hand of the LORD was there upon him.
3170 * Decade
3171590 And it came to pass in the ninth year of his reign, in the tenth month, in the tenth day of the month, that Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, and encamped against it; and they built forts against it round about. 25:1
3172589 Wahibre (Apries) becomes Pharaoh at Sais
3174587 Now in the fifth month, on the seventh day of the month, which was the nineteenth year of king Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, came Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, unto Jerusalem. And the residue of the people that were left in the city, and those that fell away, that fell to the king of Babylon, and the residue of the multitude, did Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carry away captive. And as for the people that were left in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had left, even over them he made Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan, governor at Mizpah. 25:8
3176585 Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the seed royal, came, and ten men with him, and smote Gedaliah, that he died, and the Jews and the Chaldeans that were with him at Mizpah. And all the people, both small and great, and the captains of the forces, arose, and came to Egypt; for they were afraid of the Chaldeans. 25:25
3179582 Nebuchadnezzar orders another deportation from Judea, while campaigning in Syria, Moab and Ammon
3180 * Decade
3186575 Nebuchadnezzar completes the Ishtar Gate as part of a Processional Avenue in Babylon.
3190 * Decade
3191570 Ahmose II becomes Pharaoh at Sais
Continue to 3200-3400 period

Why did Josiah delay Nechau, allowing the Assyrians and Egyptians to be defeated in detail and setting the stage for the Babylonian destruction of Jerusalem?

The scroll "found" in 3140 changed the nature of Judaism, and introduced a 30 year period (see Ezekiel 18 for the end) when children were held guilty of their parent's sins.

Was the captivity the LORD's punishment on the Family of David and the Temple Priesthood for the power grab of 3140?

How can anyone claim that the existence of a Samaritan Torah at Beth-El proves anything other than the record of Josiah's actions in Samaria?

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