Fruit of the Spirit

The Roman destruction of Judea

Events in Judah, Egypt, Rome and Mesopotamia from the 3700th Year of the World to the 4100th Year of the World

Part of our series of timeline studies:

The period starts with Judea a captured province of Rome.

By the end of this period Judea has ceased to exist, the land renamed and the people sold into slavery. The power that Rome has become is corroding from the inside, and the Church of Rome is preparing to assume secular control of the empire.

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In this table dates are listed both in the Hebrew Year of the World (AM) and the western bce/ce. AM dates count up from leaving Eden, while the bce dates count down to Jesus and then start up.

Dates included are honest best estimates based on compiling available research into a consistent chronology.

Go to the prior (3400-3700) period.
3700 61 Decade and Century
c.3700c.61 General Pompey, Marcus Licinius Crassus and Gaius Julius Caesar form a power coalition called the First Triumvirate.
370259 Gaius Julius Caesar gains millitary command of Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum.
370358 Cleopatra VI Tryphaena and her sister Berenice become co-pharaohs.
370655 General Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus rule Rome as Consuls.
370655 Ptolemy XIII Neos Dionysos becomes Pharaoh again.
370754 General Pompey becomes Governor of Spain and Roman Africa. Marcus Licinius Crassus becomes Governor of Syria.
370853 Parthian forces defeat Romans at Carrhae, Marcus Licinius Crassus killed and 34,000 legionnaires lost.
370853 Marcus Licinius Crassus death causes turmoil in Rome.
370952 Ptolemy XIV becomes Pharaoh.
370952 Cleopatra VI becomes Queen of Egypt.
370952 General Pompey rules Rome as sole Consul.
3710 51 Decade
371150 Aristobulus II Murdered in Rome, probably by order of Pompey.
371249 Gaius Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon River with his Legions. Start of Roman Civil War
371249 Julius Caesar defeats the forces of General Pompey's Legates in Spain.
371348 Julius Caesar defeats the forces of General Pompey at Pharsalus in Greece.
371348 Death of General Pompey in Egypt.
371348 Ptolemy XVI Caesar born to Cleopatra VI and Julius Caesar.
371447 Ptolemy XV becomes Pharaoh.
371546 Antipater made Procurator of the Roman Province of Judea, his son Herod made Governor of Galilee.
371645 Julius Caesar defeats the last forces of the opposition in Spain and is declared Dictator for Life.
371744 Ptolemy XVI Caesar becomes Pharaoh.
371744 Julius Caesar, Dictator for Life, is Assasinated by the Senate.
371744 Mark Antony, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Julius Caesar Octavianus form the Second Triumvirate.
3720 41 Decade
372140 Rome appoints Herod King of Judea at the urging of Mark Antony.
372437 King Herod "the Great" captures Jerusalem.
372635 King Herod builds a fortress against the north wall of the Temple, at the western end of the wall. This fortress, named "Antonia" in honor of Mark Antony, strengthens the northern defenses of Jerusalem
3730 31 Decade
373031 Battle of Actium.
373031 Mark Antony commits suicide.
373031 Cleopatra VI, the Queen of Egypt, commits suicide.
373031 Julius Caesar Octavianus Assumes command of Rome as Consul.
373130 Ptolemy XVI Caesar executed by order of Julius Caesar Octavianus, end of Ptolemy dynasty.
3740 21 Decade
374219 Herod begins preparing stones for the rebuilding of the Temple.
374318 Herod starts actual rebuilding of the Temple.
374417 Julius Caesar Octavianus becomes "Imperator Caesar Augustus".
3750 11 Decade
375110 Herod dedicates the Temple, still under reconstruction.
37565 John the Baptist born (year approximate).
37565 Jesus the Nazarene born (year approximate).
37574 Herod the Great dies.
37592 Archelaus executes a group of Pharisees in Jericho.
37592 Rebelion breaks out in Judea, led by Messianic leaders.
3760 1 Decade
37601 Publius Quintilius Varus, governor of Syria, sends three of his legions to Suppress the Judean Rebelion.
37611 The three legions burn several cities, crucify 2,000, and return to Syria with 3,000 captives to sell as slaves.
37611 Publius Quintilius Varus returns from Syria to Rome in triumph, is assigned to the north-east frontier.
37699 Battle of Teutoburg Forest, Legions XVII, XVIII and XIX, under the leadership of Publius Quintilius Varus, are massacred and their Eagles lost. These numbers were never used for any later Legion
3770 10 Decade
377414 Tiberius Claudius Nero becomes Imperator Tiberius.
377717 Two of the Eagle standards lost in the Battle of Teutoburg Forest are recovered.
3780 20 Decade
378222 John the Baptizer begins dipping people in the Jordan, then sending them "Up the west bank by the Jericho Road" to await the Messiah.
378626 Pontius Pilate appointed Roman prefect of Judea by Tiberius.
378727 Herod Antipas marries Herodias, daughter of his half brother Aristobulus and wife of his half brother Philip.
378727 Herod Antipas's Nabatean wife of about thirty years, fearing for her life, runs to her father, King Aretas (it is suggested that her name was Doris, but that notice is questionable).
3790 30 Decade
379131 Romans judicialy murder Jesus by crucifixion, 14th of Nisan (traditional date without real evidence).
379636 Pontius Pilate recalled to Rome.
379737 Joseph ben Mattathias is born in Jerusalem (became the author Flavius Josephus).
379737 Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus(known by his nickname Caligula) becomes Imperator.
379939 In a dispute, Herod Agrippa accuses Herod Antipas of conspiring with Parthians. Antipas is exiled to Gaul instead of crucified, Herodias chooses to go with him. Herod Agrippa made King of Judea as reward.

3800 40 Decade and Century
380141 Third (and final) Eagle standard lost in the Battle of Teutoburg Forest is recovered.
380141 Tiberius Claudius Drusus becomes Imperator Claudius.
380141 Agrippa, king of Judea, starts building a new, third, city wall on the North of Jerusalem.
380343 Rome invades the island of Britania.
380444 Death of Herod Agrippa.
380949 Claudius marries Agrippina and adopts her son Lucius Domitus Ahenobarbus under the name "Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus"
3810 50 Decade
381454 Nero becomes Imperator on the death of Claudius.
3820 60 Decade
382060 Queen Boudicca of the Icceni rebels against Rome. Quickly put down.
382262 Judicial murder of James the Just.
382363 Temple rebuilding completed.
382565 Nero orders that a statue of himself as a God be placed in all temples of the Empire, including the one in Jerusalem...
382565 Joseph ben Mattathias returns from his mission to Rome.
382666 The Great Revolt, Romans driven out of Jerusalem. Zealots occupy Masada
382666 Cestius Gallus marches Legion XII Fulminata from Syria to put down the revolt.
382666 Legion XII Fulminata is chased back to Syria, losing its Aquila and many men in the battle.
382767 Nero orders "Destroy Jerusalem, level their Temple"
382868 A captive of the Romans, Joseph ben Mattathias predicts that Vespasian will become Emperor.
382969 The year of the Four Caesars, Civil war in Rome on the death of Nero.
382969 Vespasian is the last contender for Caesar, takes the throne.
3830 70 Decade
383070 2,500,000 gather in Jerusalem for Passover.
383070 Titus brings Legion XV Apollinaris into the siege of Jerusalem.
383070 Titus calls in Legion III Augusta from Egypt and Legion XII Fulminata from Syria (again).
383070 Legion V Macedonica march from Emmaus and Legion X Fretensis from Jericho to join the siege of Jerusalem.
383070 Titus captures Jerusalem with over 1,300,000 jewish dead.
383070 The Second Temple, recently rebuilt, burned by Romans on the 9th of Av.
383373 With the aid of slave labor from Jerusalem, Legion X Fretensis enters the fortress of Masada, but without being able to sell the defenders as slaves.
383575 Joseph ben Mattathias is adopted into the family of Vespasian, as Flavius Josephus.
383676 Hadrian is born.
383878 Flavius Josephus' first work, "The Wars of the Jews", is published.
383979 Titus becomes Caesar.
383979 Coliseum, built with the treasures Titus looted from Judea, opens in Rome.
383979 Mount Vesuvius erupts "August 23, 79 AD".
3840 80 Decade
384181 Domitian becomes Caesar.
3850 90 Decade
385696 Marcus Cocceius Nerva becomes Caesar.
385898 Flavius Josephus publishes "The Antiquities of the Jews" as a defense of Jewish culture.
385898 Trajan becomes Caesar.
3860 100 Decade
3864104 Trajan orders the re-excavation of the Red Sea canal, work begins.
3865105 Trajan accuses Petra of conspiring with Parthia, enslaves populace.
3870 110 Decade
3874114 Trajan takes Armenia from the Parthian Empire.
3875115 Jews in Mesopotamia begin Kitos War of rebelion; riots spread to Syria, Cyprus, Judea, Egypt and Libya. It is never determined if the rebelion was started by Parthians, or just took advantage of Roman distraction.
3876116 Trajan takes Assyria and Chaldea from the Parthian Empire.
3877117 Hadrian becomes Caesar.
3877117 Hadrian orders a fallback from Trajan's greatest conquest to a defensive line at the Euphrates.
3880 120 Decade
3882122 Hadrian has a wall built across Britania to keep the Picts from invading.
3890 130 Decade
3890130 Hadrian visits Jerusalem, announces plan to restore the ruined city to it's splendor before Titus' siege. The plan includes statues of Jupiter and of the deified Caesars in the Temple. Circumcision is outlawed.
3890130 Hadrian moves on to Egypt in his inspection tour of the Roman Empire.
3892132 Bar Kochba's Revolt, Romans driven out of Jerusalem. Jerusalem again the Capital.
3895135 Emperor Hadrian's total destruction of Jerusalem.
3895135 Judea renamed "Palestine" in honor of the Philistines/Phoenecians, as part of erasing the troublesome Jews from history.
3895135 Emperor Hadrian's building of new walls and a new city named Aelia Capitolina, on the site of Jerusalem.
3895135 Jews not allowed within sight of Aelia Capitolina on pain of crucifixion.
3898138 Antonius Pius becomes Caesar.

3900 140 Decade and Century
3910 150 Decade
3920 160 Decade
3921161 Marcus Aurelius becomes Caesar.
3921161 Verus leads Roman war against Parthia with some early success.
3926166 Verus' troops return from Parthia, plague strikes Rome.
3930 170 Decade
3940 180 Decade
3940180 Lucius Aelius Aurelius Commodus becomes Caesar.
3950 190 Decade
3952192 Publius Helvius Pertinax becomes Caesar.
3952192 Didus Severus Julianus becomes Caesar.
3953193 Lucius Septimus Severus becomes Caesar.
3955195 Severus campaigns against Parthia.
3957197 Severus captures Ctesiphon.
3960 200 Decade
3970 210 Decade
3971211 Caracalla becomes Caesar uppon the natural death of his father, orders the death of everyone who blocked his attempts to murder his father sooner.
3977217 Finished with the bloodbath in Rome, Caracalla campaigns against Parthia with some success before he is assassinated.
3977217 Heliogabalus becomes Caesar.
3980 220 Decade
3982222 Alexander Severus becomes Caesar.
3990 230 Decade
3995235 Alexander Severus dies and confusion prevails.

4000 240 Decade and Century
4010 250 Decade
4020 260 Decade
4028268 Claudius II Gothicus becomes Caesar.
4030270 Aurelian becomes Caesar.
4030 270 Decade
4035275 Aurelian dies.
4040 280 Decade
4042282 After a long time planning, a combined Roman force attacks Parthian Persia.
4043283 Carus dies in battle, Numerian and Carinus are assassinated.
4044284 Surviving Roman leader Diocletian becomes Caesar.
4046286 Diocletian names Maximian co-Augustus.
4050 290 Decade
4053293 Diocletian and Maximian name Generals Galerius and Constantius as subordinate Caesars.
4053293 Diocletian administers Thrace, Egypt and Asia from Nicomedia.
4053293 Maximian administers Italy and Africa from Mediolanum.
4053293 Galerius administers the Danubian provinces from Sirmium.
4053293 Constantius administers Gaul, Spain and Britain from Augusta Treverorum.
4060 300 Decade
4065305 Diocletian and Maximian abdicate, Galerius and Constantius advance to Augustus and name new subordinate Caesars. Questions of succesion lead to civil war.
4070 310 Decade
4072312 Constantine I becomes Caesar of the Eastern provinces.
4072312 Constantine I declares the Roman Catholic Church the official state religion of the Roman Empire.
4072312 Shifting of all culpability for the murders of John the Baptist, Jesus the Nazarene, and James the Just from the Roman Occupation Army to the Jews becomes a political imperative.
4080 320 Decade
4084324 Battle of Chrysopolis; Constantine is now Caesar of a united Roman Empire.
4086325 Helena, mother of Emperor Constantine, begins constructing Roman Catholic Churches on any potential archaologic site.
4090 330 Decade
4090330 Constantine moves his capital from Nicomedia to Byzantium.
4097337 Constantine I dies - civil war resumes.

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