Fruit of the Spirit

The Greeks and Maccabee

Events in Judah, Egypt, Rome and Mesopotamia from the 3400th Year of the World to the 3700th Year of the World

One of a series of timeline studies:

The period starts with Judea a quiet part of the Persian empire. The first change is the defeat of the Persians by Alexander and the dividing of power between the Greek Generals. General Ptolemy takes Egypt, and Judea as the gateway to Egypt becomes Ptolemaic property. The Seleucids in Syria to the North and east are always trying to push the Ptolemys, and the Village of Rome is growing into a power.

As the period ends the Romans absorb Judea as a province and mop up the remains of the Seleucid empire. Only Egypt remains of the ancient empires to chalenge Roman power.

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In this table dates are listed both in the Hebrew Year of the World (AM) and the western bce/ce. AM dates count up from leaving Eden, while the bce dates count down to Jesus.

Dates included are honest best estimates based on compiling available research into a consistent chronology.

Go to the prior (3200-3400) period.
3400 361 Decade and Century
3403358 Ochus becomes Shah Artaxerxes III of the Persian Empire on his father's death.
3410 351 Decade
3420 341 Decade
3422339 Arses becomes Shah Artaxerxes IV of the Persian Empire when his father is poisoned.
3424337 Codomannus becomes Shah Darius III of the Persian Empire when Arses is poisoned.
3424337 Philip of Macedonia begins his campaign against Persia's Anatolian holdings as Hegemon of the League of Corinth
3425336 Vizier Bagoas is executed for attempting to poison Darius.
3425336 Philip of Macedonia dies of poison, his son Alexander III begins consolidating power as the new Hegemon of the League.
3426335 Alexander of Macedonia begins his campaign against Darius and the Persian Empire with a victory at Granicus in Anatolia
3427334 Alexander beseiges and captures Tyre, the last Phoenecian Empire trading port in the Levant
3428333 Alexander Conquers Egypt and orders the Building of Alexandria
3428333 Antigonos I Monopthalmus appointed Satrap of Greater Phyrigia
3429332 Alexander defeats Darius at Gaugamela ending the Persian Empire
3430 331 Decade
3438323 Death of Alexander in Babylon
3438323 Wars of Succession between the Diadochi begin - Perdiccas made regent of Alexander's realm, Antigonos gains Pamphylia and Lycia, Seleucus is Satrap of Babylonia and Ptolemy is Satrap of Syria and Egypt.
3440 321 Decade
3440321 Perdiccas dies and Antipater is made regent of the realm
3441320 Ptolemy I Soter captures Jerusalem.
3442319 Antipater dies and Polyperchon is made regent of the realm
3446315 Antigonos invades Babylonia and seizes Babylon.
3447314 Antigonos invades Syria.
3449312 Seleucus I Nicator recovers Babylon from Antigonos.
3449312 Official First Year of the Greek Empire.
3450 311 Decade
3455306 Antigonos declares himself King of the Greek Empire.
3456305 Ptolemy I Soter proclaims himself Pharaoh of Egypt.
3456305 Seleucus I Nicator assumes the title "King".
3460 301 Decade
3460301 Antigonos is killed in the battle of Ipsus. Alexander's former Diadochi abandon all pretense of a unified Empire and rule their satrapies as Kingdoms.
3469292 Antiochus I Soter joins his father, Seleucus I Nicator, as co-regent.
3470 291 Decade
3477284 Ptolemy II Philadelphus becomes Pharaoh.
3480 281 Decade
3481280 Antiochus I Soter assumes sole rule on the death of his father, Seleucus I Nicator.
3490 271 Decade
3497264 Start of the First Punic War (Carthage and Rome).

3500 261 Decade and Century
3500261 Antiochus II Theos becomes king on the assasination of Antiochus I Soter.
3510 251 Decade
3515246 Seleucus II Callinicus becomes king.
3515246 Ptolemy III Euergetes I becomes Pharaoh.
3520 241 Decade
3520241 End of the First Punic War. Rome takes Sicily from Carthage.
3521240 Carthage establishes bases on the Spanish penninsula.
3530 231 Decade
3536225 Seleucus III Soter becomes king.
3538223 Antiochus III becomes king.
3539222 Ptolemy IV Philopater becomes Pharaoh.
3540 221 Decade
3543218 Carthaginian General Hanibal invades Italy over the Alps from the Spanish penninsula, starting the Second Punic War.
3550 211 Decade
3556205 Ptolemy V Epiphanes becomes Pharaoh.
3557204 Carthage recalls General Hanibal to Africa. Hanibal's forces engage Roman forces under Scipio Africanus in Carthaginian North Africa.
3521240 Rome defeats Carthage ending the Second Punic War.
3560 201 Decade
3563198 Seleucid empire captures Jerusalem
3570 191 Decade
3574187 Seleucus IV Philopater becomes king.
3580 181 Decade
3581180 Ptolemy VI Philometor becomes Pharaoh.
3586175 Antiochus IV Epiphanes becomes king.
3586175 Queen Cleopatra II becomes Soverign of Upper Egypt (wife of Ptolemy VI Philometor).
3590 171 Decade
3590171 Seleucid king Antiochus IV invades Eygypt, imposes demands on Philometor and Cleopatra.
3591170 Antiochus IV invades Eygypt again, seige of Alexandria is broken by Romans under Gaius Popilus Laenus.
3592169 Antiochus IV retreats from Alexandria to Jerusalem, confiscates the Temple Treasures, sets up altar to Zeus and outlaws Judaism.
3593168 The book of Daniel is un-sealed and circulated.
3593168 Rome conquers Macedonia in the battle of Pydna.
3595166 The priest Mattathias begins Hasmonean revolt.
3597164 Judah ben Mattathias (The Maccabee) recaptures Jerusalem and restores the Temple Service.
3598163 Antiochus V Eupator becomes king.
3599162 Demetrius I Soter becomes king.

3600 161 Decade and Century
3601160 Jonathan ben Mattathias assumes the leadership of the revolt upon the death of Judah.
3601160 Demetrius I Soter recalls his garrisons to deal with unrest at home.
3610 151 Decade
3611150 Alexander Balas becomes king.
3611150 Alexander Balas appoints Jonathan ben Mattathias as High Priest of the Zion Temple and Governor of the Judean province.
3612149 Start of the Third Punic War.
3615146 End of the Third Punic War. General Scipio Africanus captures and destroys Carthage.
3615146 End of Carthage, the last Capital city in the long history (known to Abraham in 1845, fell in 3615, 1770 years later) of the Phoenecian Trading Empire.
3616145 Demetrius II Nicator and Antiochus VI Epiphanes Dionysius become co-regents.
3616145 Ptolemy VII Physcon Euergetes II becomes Pharaoh and husband of Cleopatra II.
3618143 Simon ben Mattathias assumes the governorship when Tryphon kills Jonathan.
3619142 Demetrius II Nicator becomes king on death of Antiochus VI Epiphanes Dionysius.
3620 141 Decade
3620141 Seleucid Empire recognizes Judea as a Semi-autonomous Region.
3620141 Rome recognizes Judea as a Fully-autonomous Region.
3622139 Antiochus VII Sidetes becomes king when Parthians capture Demetrius II Nicator.
3627134 Simon is assasinated by his son-in-law, and his son Hyrcanus I assumes the rule.
3630 131 Decade
3631130 Antiochus VII Sidetes beseiges Jerusalem.
3632129 Demetrius II Nicator becomes king (again) when Parthians kill Antiochus VII Sidetes.
3632129 Demetrius II Nicator recognizes Judean full autonomy.
3633128 Hyrcanus I begins the conquest of ancient Edom, now called Idumaea.
3636125 Seleucus V and Antiochus VIII Philometor become co-regents.
3640 121 Decade
3640121 Antiochus VIII Philometor becomes sole king.
3643118 Cleopatra II steps down as ruler of Upper Egypt.
3645116 Cleopatra III becomes Queen of Eygypt.
3645116 Ptolemy X Soter II becomes Pharaoh.
3650 111 Decade
3651110 Ptolemy XI Alexander I becomes Pharaoh.
3652109 Ptolemy X Soter II becomes Pharaoh again.
3654107 Ptolemy XI Alexander I becomes Pharaoh again.
3657104 Aristobulus I assumes the rule. Corruption is rampant. the 'Pharisee' party develops in the priesthood, seeks political power. The traditional priesthood is now called 'Zaduccee.'
3657104 The name 'Nazarene' comes into use for those who follow the doctrines of Amos, Hoseah, Micah and Jeremiah, and challenge priestly authority.
3658103 Alexander Jannaeus assumes the rule, and appoints Antipas the Idumaean as governor of the Idumaean province.
3660 101 Decade
3660101 Cleopatra IV Berenice becomes Queen of Eygypt (till 3673).
366596 Seleucus VI Epiphanes Nicator becomes king.
366695 Antiochus X Eusebes Philopator claims the throne.
366695 Demetrius III Eukairos Philopator Soter challenges Antiochus X (to 3673).
366992 Antiochus XI Epiphanes Philadelphus challenges Antiochus X.
366992 Philippus I Epiphanes Philadelphus challenges Antiochus X (to 3678).
3670 91 Decade
367190 The Italian allies rise in revolt, starting the Social War.
367388 Ptolemy X Soter II becomes Pharaoh again.
367388 Romans win the Social War by defeating Italians, but grant them Roman citizenship.
367487 Antiochus XII Dionysus challenges Antiochus X (to 3677).
367883 Tigranes of Armenia becomes king.
3680 81 Decade
368180 Ptolemy XII Alexander II becomes Pharaoh (assasinated).
368180 Ptolemy XIII Neos Dionysos becomes Pharaoh.
368576 When Alexander Jannaeus dies, his widow Salome (Shalom-zion) Alexandra assumes the rule, shifting political favor to the Pharisees.
3690 71 Decade
369071 The slaves of Rome revolt, led by the gladiator Spartacus. Standard Roman response - thousands are crucified.
369269 Antiochus XIII becomes king.
369467 Hyrcanus II assumes the throne on the death of his mother.
369566 Aristobulus II seizes the throne from his brother. Antipater, governor of Idumaea (son of Antipas) conspires with the Arabian Aretas of Petra to restore Hyrcanus to the throne.
369665 Aristobulus and Hyrcanus appeal to Rome to judge the matter.
369764 Philippus II becomes king.
369863 General Pompey marches into Jerusalem, declares Judea a Roman protectorate.
369863 Romans capture those western parts of the Seleucid Empire not already fallen to the Parthians.
369863 Hyrcanus set up as puppet king with Antipater as collector of Roman taxes, Aristobulus taken prisoner to Rome.
Continue to 3700-4100 period

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